|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 1-2
The interaction between exercise and cardiovascular disease
Steven R Bailey
Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center at Shreveport, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA
|Date of Submission||19-Jan-2023|
|Date of Acceptance||17-Feb-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||13-Mar-2023|
Prof. Steven R Bailey
Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center at Shreveport, Shreveport, Louisiana 71103
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Bailey SR. The interaction between exercise and cardiovascular disease. Heart Mind 2023;7:1-2
It is widely accepted that regular physical activity (PA) is beneficial for cardiovascular (CV) health. Frequent exercise is robustly associated with a decrease in CV disease (CVD) mortality as well as the risk of developing CVD. Exercise prevents both the onset and development of CVD and is an important therapeutic tool to improve outcomes for patients with CVD. Prof. Carl J. Lavie's experience in cardiology and exercise spans decades with a diversity of experience across the globe and contributes to the development of sports cardiology. In Prof. Lavie's opinion, lack of PA and exercise, high sedentary behavior, as well as low cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength are some of the biggest threats to health and longevity in the 21st century. We are deeply indebted to the guest editor, Prof. Lavie, of this issue themed “The Interaction between Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease” for all his contribution and support and to all the authors for providing their excellent articles.
Jenna L. Taylor provided a manuscript entitled “Exercise and the Brain in Cardiovascular Disease: A Narrative Review.” She reviewed the current evidence for the effect of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on cognitive function, cerebrovascular function, and brain structure in patients with CVDs. Moreover, she concluded that exercise-based CR appears to improve global cognitive function and attention-psychomotor functions, but not language processes. Furthermore, the effect of exercise-based CR on executive function and memory is less clear, and there is limited research into the effect of exercise-based CR on the cerebrovascular function and brain structure.
In their article entitled “Proposing an #EASIER Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Protocol for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Survivors,” Audrey Borghi-Silva et al. developed a protocol based on the acronym #EASIER, which is divided into six phases – (1) exercises for warm-up, (2) aerobic training, (3) strength training, (4) improving respiratory muscle strength, (5) exercises for cognitive function and balance, and (6) recovery. With this protocol, the authors hope to suggest early identification of the impact of COVID-19 in different severities and provide subsidies to guide physiotherapists early, through the correct prescription of rehabilitative interventional measures.
Charounipha Soydara et al.'s paper entitled “Postexercise Oxygen Uptake Recovery Delay among Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review” explores oxygen uptake (VO2) recovery delay across the spectrum of the left ventricular function. This systematic review was conducted using several online databases (EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, and Web of Science). The manuscript was remarkable in that only four studies met the inclusion criteria. Given that, there is clearly an unmet need to further study various approaches to assess VO2 recovery delay patterns and their relation to prognosis.
Dejana Popovic and Carl J. Lavie published an article entitled “Stress, Cardiovascular Diseases and Exercise – A Narrative Review.” They described that stress is considered a state of homeostasis being challenged, with biological consequences that can cause CVD. Stressors may be diverse and include a variety of psychological stressors. They aimed to review the impact of stress on CVD risk with an emphasis on approaches for stress reduction. They suggested that innovative strategies to combat CVD are strongly needed, and exercise may be the best populationlevel costeffective approach.
In the manuscript entitled “The Therapeutic Role of Exercise Training in Heart Failure Patients: A Narrative Review,” Ageliki Laina et al. stated that exercise training and CR in HF patients have beneficial effects on reducing and preserving ejection fraction. They also described the potential pathophysiological mechanisms for symptoms alleviated by exercise and different types of exercise that can be used. Given that, the researchers recommended exercise-based CR programs, including regular PA, and smoking cessation for treatments of patients with HF.
Barry A. Franklin and Thijs M.H. Eijsvogels contributed their work entitled “A Narrative Review on Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease: Physical Activity Thresholds for Optimizing Health Outcomes.” Their review examines the relationships between PA and acute CV events, with a specific reference to the World Health Organization exercise intensity and duration recommendations for optimal health, as well as the thresholds for other research-based exercise metrics, etc. The primary beneficiaries of exercise training programs and long-term goal training intensities, based on age, sex, and “good” fitness, are also discussed. In summary, the benefits of regular moderate-to-vigorous PA, and the associated improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, far outweigh the risks for most individuals.
The manuscript entitled “Impact of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychological Factors, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Survival: A Narrative Review” is provided by Nadia Isabel Abelhad et al. In this comprehensive overview, they described the individual components of exercise training and discussed the preset doses for effective CR based on recent meta-analyses. They also reviewed the effects of prescribed exercise medicine on outcomes such as psychosocial stress factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, and survival and their individualized impact on special populations. These authors highlight that greater efforts are needed to focus on methods that will improve the delivery of therapy by focusing on patients with adverse effects to exercise training or nonresponders in CR. Such efforts would go a long way in preventing CVD and improving the prognosis in those with established CVD.
This issue underscores the cardioprotective effects of exercise training and explores the underlying mechanistic pathways that might explain these benefits. Authors from institutions around the world contributed their outstanding articles. On behalf of the editorial team, we appreciate the guest editor and all the contributors very much for their ongoing support.