• Users Online: 248
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe News Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 52-57

Anxiety in individuals with cardiovascular diseases: A narrative review and expert opinion


Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Department of Medicine, Duke University Health Systems, Durham, North Carolina, USA

Date of Submission01-Apr-2022
Date of Acceptance11-Apr-2022
Date of Web Publication16-May-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Wei Jiang
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Health Systems, Durham 27710; Department of Medicine, Duke University Health Systems, Durham 27710
North Carolina, USA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/hm.hm_5_22

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Anxiety is a commonly prevalent mental problem in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but its significance and clinical management have been neglected until recently. Similar to depression, anxiety has been demonstrated to be prevalent and hinging the quality of life and optimal outcome of patients with CVD. Although research evidence is still limited, clinical management for depression may be adopted for the care of anxiety in patients with CVD. Special attention needs to be paid when diagnosing anxiety disorder in patients with CVD because the fear may be a normal reaction of these patients and anxiety may manifest somatically.

Keywords: Anxiety, cardiovascular diseases, mindfulness cognitive behavior therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors


How to cite this article:
Jiang W. Anxiety in individuals with cardiovascular diseases: A narrative review and expert opinion. Heart Mind 2022;6:52-7

How to cite this URL:
Jiang W. Anxiety in individuals with cardiovascular diseases: A narrative review and expert opinion. Heart Mind [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 28];6:52-7. Available from: http://www.heartmindjournal.org/text.asp?2022/6/2/52/345285




  Introduction Top


Aside from depression, anxiety is another commonly experienced emotional activity of human lives and plays significant role in the biopsychosocial interactive system of human health. Much attention has been paid to depression in cardiovascular health in medical literature over many years, and our understanding of anxiety with cardiovascular health has been on the rise recently. Anxiety bears a similar prevalence of depression, according to the WHO 2017 Global Health Estimates. As the total number of people with depression was estimated to exceed 300 million in 2015 globally, nearly the same number suffers from a range of anxiety disorders. Since many people experience both conditions simultaneously (comorbidity), it is inappropriate to simply add these two figures together to arrive at a total for common mental disorders. More importantly, the number of persons with common mental disorders globally is going up, particularly in lower-income countries, because the population is growing and more people are living to the age when depression and anxiety most commonly occur. People experiencing subclinical anxiety or fear, worry, and feeling of uncertain are countless and exhausting health-care resources, which was not accounted in the WHO 2017. This review aims at summarizing the recent understanding of anxiety with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Opinion of clinical management will be shared as well.


  Prevalence of Anxiety in Individuals with Cardiovascular Diseases Top


Data accumulated particularly since the beginning of the 21st century consistently demonstrate that anxiety is prevalent in patients with CVD.[1] For instance, in a meta-analysis, Tully et al. showed that the point prevalence of any anxiety disorders in CVD patients was 16%. The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder was much higher in CVD patients than in the general population (7.97 vs. 3.1%, and 6.81 vs. 2.7%, respectively).[2] In a sample of 804 patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), Frasure–Smith[3] identified that 5.3% had GAD and 41.4% had elevated anxiety symptoms. Following an episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 20%–30% of patients were found to experience elevated levels of anxiety.[4],[5] While post-ACS anxiety may be transient for some patients, in half of the cases, anxiety persists for up to 1-year postevent.[4] Koivula et al. identified 25% of CHD patients experiencing elevated anxiety symptoms before the coronary artery bypass grafting procedure.[6] In a recent meta-analysis of 38 studies, Easton et al. estimated that 32% of patients with heart failure (HF) experience elevated levels of anxiety, and 13% meet the criteria for an anxiety disorder.[7] Anxiety also affects approximately 20% of patients with more advanced HF who require implantation of a left ventricular assist device to support their cardiac function.[8],[9] In patients who have undergone implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator to prevent the development of lethal arrhythmias, approximately 20%–40% of them have elevated anxiety symptoms.[10] Post-stroke patients are another vulnerable population that has high anxiety, as data show that anxiety following a stroke or transient ischemic attack occurs in about 24% of patients[11] and is a distressing problem associated with poorer health-related quality of life.[12]


  Clinical Significance of Anxiety in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases Top


The clinical significance of anxiety in CVD patients is not as clearly delineated as the impact of depression and recently emerged evidence indicates that anxiety may be a risk factor for CVD. For instance, Frasure–Smith and Lesperance[3] followed patients with stable coronary artery disease for 2 years, and found that not only depression but also anxiety predicted a greater risk of major adverse cardiac events such as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or cardiac arrest in those patients. In a meta-analysis that comprised 20 studies and 249,846 individuals with a mean follow-up period of 11.2 years, Roest et al. found that anxious persons were at risk of CHD (hazard ratio [HR] random: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–1.38; P = 0.0001) and cardiac death (HR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.14–1.92; P = 0.003), independent of demographic variables, biological risk factors, and health behaviors.[13] The association between anxiety and nonfatal myocardial infarction was not statistically significant (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.85–2.40; P = 0.180). Several years later, Emdin et al. conducted a meta-analysis on 46 cohort studies and found anxiety was associated with a 41% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and CHD, a 71% higher risk of stroke, and a 35% higher risk of HF.[14] Several studies have pointed out that anxiety is not only associated with CVD-related mortality but also associated with all-cause mortality.[15],[16],[17],[18] Furthermore, the findings of many studies[13],[14],[19],[20] have indicated that anxiety disorders may also be an independent risk factor in the development of CVD. Nevertheless, the association of anxiety and increased overall mortality has not been consistently demonstrated. For example, after adjusting for publication bias based on 36 cohort studies, Miloyan et al. found no increase in overall mortality in anxiety disorders.[21] Jiang et al.[22] measured symptoms of anxiety with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scale and symptoms of depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale in 291 patients who had chronic HF and were hospitalized because of cardiac events. The team then followed these patients up for all-cause mortality over 1 year. The State-A and Trait-A scores were moderately correlated with the BDI score (State-A, r = 0.52; Trait-A, r = 0.59; P < 0.01) but had no relation with 1-year mortality by Cox-proportional analysis. BDI scores, however, significantly predicted increased mortality during 1-year follow-up (HR, 1.04 for each 1-unit increase; P < 0.01). In a community sample of 11,643 German adults between 40 and 80 years of age, Reiner et al.[23] investigated the association of chronic anxiousness with CVD and mortality. They assessed anxiety using the two-item version of the GAD-7.[24],[25] The two items were 1. “Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge” and 2. “Not being able to stop or control worrying” with scores rated from 0 = “not at all,” 1 = “several days,” 2 = “over half the days,” and 3 = “nearly every day” of each. The assessment was conducted at baseline and then repeated during the next 2.5 years. The authors reported that 12% of the participants reported consistently raised (chronic) anxiousness over 2.5 years. The chronic anxiousness was linked to the new onset of CVD in men but did not predict all-cause mortality[23] over a 5-year follow-up.

In addition to the CV impact, anxiety can bring on many somatic complaints that complexes the clinical management of these patients. This has been an important public health issue because anxiety impairs the daily function of these patients and worsens their quality of life that is greater than those without anxiety.[26] Furthermore, the repeated utilization of health-care services by patients with non-CVD rooted symptoms leads to a substantial financial burden, with the annual cost of such patients' evaluations measured in the billions.[27],[28]


  Clinical Management of Anxiety in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases Top


Diagnostic consideration: What should we know about anxiety before diagnosis?

At the most basic level, anxiety is an emotion, a secondary emotion of the primary emotion of fear. The most important distinction between fear and anxiety may be the timeframe. Fear is the response to a danger that is currently detected in the immediate, present moment. In contrast, anxiety refers to the anticipation of some potential threat that may, or may not, happen in future. Anxiety reflects the anticipation of fear and represents an adaptive attempt to prevent the fear-provoking circumstance from occurring. In an anxious state, people are readying themselves and preparing themselves to cope with a future problem or dilemma that they anticipate will cause some kind of harm if not prevented from occurring. In this respect, anxiety is a normal, beneficial emotion. Having fear and anxiety under certain specific conditions is not all abnormal. Therefore, a health-care provider needs to grab the conceptual differences and convey them to his/her patients effectively.

While emotion is a subjective state of being, emotion is often associated with changes in feelings, behaviors, thoughts, and physiology, and experienced in varying degrees of intensity. Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts, and physical changes such as increased blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle intensity dysregulation. When anxiety recurs and/or persists, namely anxiety disorders, individuals with such conditions usually have recurring intrusive thoughts or concerns. They may avoid certain situations out of worry. They may also have physical symptoms such as sweating, trembling, dizziness, or a rapid heartbeat. If not effectively managed, anxiety can become a debilitating disorder, often associated with excessive worry, fear, isolation, depression, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and other forms of psychopathology.[29]

Individuals with anxiety may present with various physiological manifestations such as excessive thirst, stomach upset, loose bowel movement, frequent urination, headaches, hot flushes or chills, pounding heart, chest pain, increased heart rate, fatigue, poor sleep, muscle tension and/or pain, excessive sweating, hyperventilation or shortness of breath, dizziness, dilated pupils, heightened senses, hypertension, trembling, and tingling. Mental symptoms can include the following:[29],[30] easily losing patience; difficulty in concentrating; thinking constantly about worst outcomes, sleep disturbance, depression, preoccupied or obsessed with one subject, compelled to perform rituals and routines repeatedly, excessive worry about many things (for example bad things happening to self or loved ones), restless, jumpy, irritability, angry, crying, clinging, avoidance, tantrums, fear of death or loss of control, intense and/or irrational fears, smothering feeling, feeling of choking, verbal or physical aggression, avoid people, places, or activities, refusal to go to school, camp, and sleepover, take a long time to calm down, etc.

Above is a brief overview of the basic knowledge of anxiety in patients with CVD.

Commonly prevalent anxiety disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases

The study by Goodwin et al.[31] has by far provided the most reliable evidence showing the commonly prevalent anxiety disorders in patients with CVD. Through analyzing the data drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of 43,093 US civilian noninstitutionalized participants aged 18 and older who underwent systematic diagnostic interviews, the authors found that CVD was associated with these three anxiety disorders, i.e., GAD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48 [1.09, 2.01]), panic disorder (OR = 1.46 [1.12, 1.91]), and specific phobia (OR = 1.29 [1.04, 1.59]. Adjustment disorder with anxiety (with/out depression) can be a commonly encountered anxiety disorder in CVD practice.

What should we do?

The most critical point a clinician needs to pay close attention to when working with a CVD patient is to keep anxiety and/or depression on the differential list. There have been a number of self-administered anxiety scales, but their utilization in CVD patients has not been investigated. Based on studies from other populations and experience of clinical practice, this author recommended to consider the GAD Questionnaire (GAD-7)[32] or the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI).[33] The GAD-7 has seven items, primarily following features listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and BAI has 21 items that include more somatic complaints and more inclusive of various anxiety disorders.[34],[35],[36] Moreover, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was designed for the detection and assessment of those mood disorders in the setting of hospitals and clinics and can be self-administered easily in CVD patients for both anxiety and depression assessment.[37]


  Anxiety Intervention in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases Top


Qualified research evidence regarding whether interventions are effective in anxiety improvement appears promising.

Farquhar and Blumenthal et al. conducted a systematic review in 2018 when there were only four interventional studies included on elevated anxiety symptoms in patients with CHD.[38] Two of the four used the same database[39],[40] [Table 1]. In addition, Jiang et al., at Duke University Health systems, have conducted the UNWIND (UNderstanding the benefits of exercise and escitalopram in anxious patients WIth coroNary heart Diseasetrial) (ClinicalTrials. gov NCT02516332) between January 2016 and May 2020. The UNWIND intended to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic exercise and escitalopram, compared with matched placebo, in improving anxiety symptoms and reducing the risk for adverse clinical events in patients with CHD and anxiety. This study randomized eligible patients to aerobic exercise (N = 60), escitalopram (N = 60), or matched placebo pill (N = 30) for 12 weeks.[41] The UNWIND trial is the first study using anxiolytic medication to treat cardiac patients with elevated anxiety. The primary results of the UNWIND appeared in JAMA Psychiatry in November 2021,[42] revealing that both the exercise group and escitalopram group demonstrated greater reductions in HADS-A (exercise, −4.0; 95% CI, −4.7 to − 3.2; escitalopram, −5.7; 95% CI, −6.4 to −5.0) compared with the matched control group that was taking a placebo (−3.5; 95% CI, −4.5 to − 2.4; P = 0.03). Further, the escitalopram group demonstrated a less anxiety compared with the exercise group (−1.67; 95% CI, −2.68 to −0.66; P = 0.002). Moreover, the UNWIND trial demonstrated a significant postintervention group differences in 24-h urinary catecholamines (exercise z score = 0.05; escitalopram z score = −0.24; and placebo z score = 0.36), with greater reductions in both exercise group and escitalopram group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.01) and greater reductions in the escitalopram group compared with the exercise group (P = 0.04). The trial also showed that escitalopram in these participants was safe.
Table 1: Studies examined anxiolytic treatment in patients with cardiovascular diseases

Click here to view


Knapp et al. conducted a Cochran review in 2017 to look at available evidence of anxiety intervention in poststroke patients. The authors identified three trials (four interventions) involving 196 participants with stroke and comorbid anxiety.[43] The first trial, described as a pilot study, randomized 21 community-dwelling stroke survivors to 4 weeks of using a relaxation CD (music records) versus on a waitlist control. Using HADS, the study reported a reduction in anxiety at 3 months among participants who had used the relaxation CD (mean [standard deviation (SD)] 6.9 [±4.9] vs. ones in the waitlist 11.0 [±3.9]), Cohen's d = 0.926, P = 0.001. The second trial randomized 81 participants with comorbid anxiety and depression to paroxetine, paroxetine plus psychotherapy, or standard care. Mean levels of anxiety severity scores by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) at follow-up were 5.4 (SD ± 1.7), 3.8 (SD ± 1.8), and 12.8 (SD ± 1.9), respectively (P < 0.01). The third trial randomized 94 stroke patients, with comorbid anxiety depression, to receive buspirone hydrochloride or standard care. At follow-up, the mean levels of anxiety by the HAM-A were 6.5 (SD ± 3.1) and 12.6 (SD ± 3.4) in the two groups, respectively, which represents a significant difference (P < 0.01). Half of the participants receiving paroxetine experienced adverse events that included nausea, vomiting, or dizziness and 14% of those receiving buspirone experienced nausea or palpitations. Knapp et al.[43] concluded that the quality of the evidence was very low, as each study included a small number of participants, particularly the study of relaxation therapy. Pharmacological studies presented limited data to allow judgment of selection, performance, and detection bias.

Many investigators have speculated that mentally driven intervention may improve the prognostic outcomes of CVD over the years, but there have been no definitive data to approve it. The obstacles of conducting outcome clinical trials are hard to overcome at present. Some investigators took steps to look at the effects on intermediate biomarkers. For example, The REMIT (Responses of Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram, Clinicaltrials. gov NCT00574847) study demonstrated a 6-week escitalopram, compared to matched placebo, reduced mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia that is a predictor of increased major CV events.[44] Elzib et al. summarized the findings of seven clinical studies, indicating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressant medications improve the neuromotor skills of patients post stroke.[45] Kamarck et al.[46] randomized 159 healthy adults with elevated hostility scores to citalopram or placebo for a 2-month period, and found that citalopram favorably changed metabolic risk factors, including waist circumference, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin resistance. In each variable, the active drug group showed significant favorable changes over time and the placebo group did not [Table 2]. All of these metabolic changes were significantly mediated by treatment-related changes in body mass index (in most cases, P < 0.01).[46]
Table 2: Changes in metabolic risk factors as a function of a 2-month experimental intervention (citalopram versus placebo)

Click here to view


The controversy on the safety of mentally driven interventions in patients with CVD remains. Nevertheless, randomized clinical trials testing SSRIs, mindfulness practice, and cognitive-behavioral interventions have shown that they are safe compared with matched placebos. However, other studies, especially longitudinal observational studies, tend to question significant side effects, particularly related to concerning metabolic alterations.[47] These inconsistent and concerning data require more investigations and caution of clinical practice. The phenomenon of citalopram prolonging the QT interval has not been validated among other SSRIs.[48]

From a clinical practice perspective, the biggest change over a couple of decades may be that SSRI has emerged to be the first-line anxiolytic agent. Benzodiazepines may be used in acute situations to improve active panic attacks briefly. A combination of SSRIs and mindfulness cognitive behavior therapy (MCBT) is considered most effective for anxiety with/out of depression, but MCBT's effective implementation in CVD services has been very challenging.


  Summary Top


Anxiety, similar to depression, is prevalent in as well as a risk for patients with CVD. Although definitively evidence-based practice regarding effective management is not yet in place, limited data gained from randomized clinical trials support SSRIs and MCBT are effective and relatively safe. Nonmental health practice clinicians need to be vigilant when working with CVD patients and ascertain the provision of applicable interventions targeting on anxiety reduction once indicated. Utilization of SSRIs needs to start with the lowest doses with titration on tolerability and side effect profile. Particular cautions of using SSRIs include, nor exclusively: (1) their antiplatelet function when patients take other anticoagulated medications, and (2) risk of serotonin syndrome when patients use other serotonin agents.

Ethical statement

Ethical statement is not applicable for this article.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

Prof. Wei Jiang is the Editorial Board member of the Heart and Mind journal. The article was subject to the journal's standard procedures, with peer review handled independently of Prof. Wei Jiang and their research groups. There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
WHO. Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders. Global Health Estimates WHO/MSD/MER/2017.2; 2017. Available from: https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/prevalence_global_health_estimates/en/. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 24].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Tully PJ, Cosh SM, Baumeister H. The anxious heart in whose mind? A systematic review and meta-regression of factors associated with anxiety disorder diagnosis, treatment and morbidity risk in coronary heart disease. J Psychosom Res 2014;77:439-48.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Frasure-Smith N, Lespérance F. Depression and anxiety as predictors of 2-year cardiac events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:62-71.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Grace SL, Abbey SE, Irvine J, Shnek ZM, Stewart DE. Prospective examination of anxiety persistence and its relationship to cardiac symptoms and recurrent cardiac events. Psychother Psychosom 2004;73:344-52.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hanssen TA, Nordrehaug JE, Eide GE, Bjelland I, Rokne B. Anxiety and depression after acute myocardial infarction: An 18-month follow-up study with repeated measures and comparison with a reference population. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2009;16:651-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Koivula M, Tarkka MT, Tarkka M, Laippala P, Paunonen-Ilmonen M. Fear and anxiety in patients at different time-points in the coronary artery bypass process. Int J Nurs Stud 2002;39:811-22.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Easton K, Coventry P, Lovell K, Carter LA, Deaton C. Prevalence and measurement of anxiety in samples of patients with heart failure: Meta-analysis. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2016;31:367-79.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Brouwers C, Denollet J, Caliskan K, de Jonge N, Constantinescu A, Young Q, et al. Psychological distress in patients with a left ventricular assist device and their partners: An exploratory study. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2015;14:53-62.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Modica M, Ferratini M, Torri A, Oliva F, Martinelli L, De Maria R, et al. Quality of life and emotional distress early after left ventricular assist device implant: A mixed-method study. Artif Organs 2015;39:220-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Magyar-Russell G, Thombs BD, Cai JX, Baveja T, Kuhl EA, Singh PP, et al. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in adults with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: A systematic review. J Psychosom Res 2011;71:223-31.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Campbell Burton CA, Murray J, Holmes J, Astin F, Greenwood D, Knapp P. Frequency of anxiety after stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Stroke 2013;8:545-59.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Donnellan C, Hickey A, Hevey D, O'Neill D. Effect of mood symptoms on recovery one year after stroke. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2010;25:1288-95.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Roest AM, Martens EJ, de Jonge P, Denollet J. Anxiety and risk of incident coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:38-46.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Emdin CA, Odutayo A, Wong CX, Tran J, Hsiao AJ, Hunn BH. Meta-analysis of anxiety as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 2016;118:511-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Sokoreli I, de Vries JJ, Pauws SC, Steyerberg EW. Depression and anxiety as predictors of mortality among heart failure patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart Fail Rev 2016;21:49-63.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Meier SM, Mattheisen M, Mors O, Mortensen PB, Laursen TM, Penninx BW. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders: Total population study. Br J Psychiatry 2016;209:216-21.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Pratt LA, Druss BG, Manderscheid RW, Walker ER. Excess mortality due to depression and anxiety in the United States: Results from a nationally representative survey. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2016;39:39-45.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Chesney E, Goodwin GM, Fazel S. Risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in mental disorders: A meta-review. World Psychiatry 2014;13:153-60.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Strik JJ, Denollet J, Lousberg R, Honig A. Comparing symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of cardiac events and increased health care consumption after myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1801-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Batelaan NM, Seldenrijk A, Bot M, van Balkom AJ, Penninx BW. Anxiety and new onset of cardiovascular disease: Critical review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2016;208:223-31.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Miloyan B, Bulley A, Bandeen-Roche K, Eaton WW, Gonçalves-Bradley DC. Anxiety disorders and all-cause mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2016;51:1467-75.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Jiang W, Kuchibhatla M, Cuffe MS, Christopher EJ, Alexander JD, Clary GL, et al. Prognostic value of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 2004;110:3452-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Reiner IC, Tibubos AN, Werner AM, Ernst M, Brähler E, Wiltink J, et al. The association of chronic anxiousness with cardiovascular disease and mortality in the community: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study. Sci Rep 2020;10:12436.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Löwe B, Decker O, Müller S, Brähler E, Schellberg D, Herzog W, et al. Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population. Med Care 2008;46:266-74.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Löwe B, Wahl I, Rose M, Spitzer C, Glaesmer H, Wingenfeld K, et al. A 4-item measure of depression and anxiety: Validation and standardization of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) in the general population. J Affect Disord 2010;122:86-95.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Ortiz-Garrido O, Ortiz-Olvera NX, González-Martínez M, Morán-Villota S, Vargas-López G, Dehesa-Violante M, et al. Clinical assessment and health-related quality of life in patients with non-cardiac chest pain. Rev Gastroenterol Mex 2015;80:121-9.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Pope JH, Aufderheide TP, Ruthazer R, Woolard RH, Feldman JA, Beshansky JR, et al. Missed diagnoses of acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1163-70.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, Adams RJ, Berry JD, Brown TM, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2011 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2011;123:e18-209.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Bellini S. Living in fear: Anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Report 2004;9:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
National Institute for Mental Health Website for Anxiety disorders. Available from: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/topics/topic-page-anxiety-disorders.shtml. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 24].  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Goodwin RD, Davidson KW, Keyes K. Mental disorders and cardiovascular disease among adults in the United States. J Psychiatr Res 2009;43:239-46.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1092-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56:893-7.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Swinson RP. The GAD-7 scale was accurate for diagnosing generalised anxiety disorder. Evid Based Med 2006;11:184.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Monahan PO, Löwe B. Anxiety disorders in primary care: Prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:317-25.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Kabacoff RI, Segal DL, Hersen M, Van Hasselt VB. Psychometric properties and diagnostic utility of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory with older adult psychiatric outpatients. J Anxiety Disord 1997;11:33-47.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2003;1:29.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Farquhar JM, Stonerock GL, Blumenthal JA. Treatment of anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease: A systematic review. Psychosomatics 2018;59:318-32.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Wheatley D. Clorazepate in the management of coronary disease. Psychosomatics 1979;20:195, 198-9, 203-5.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Wheatley D. Coronary heart disease: Treating the anxiety component. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol 1980;4:537-44.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Blumenthal JA, Feger BJ, Smith PJ, Watkins LL, Jiang W, Davidson J, et al. Treatment of anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease: Rationale and design of the UNderstanding the benefits of exercise and escitalopram in anxious patients WIth coroNary heart Disease (UNWIND) randomized clinical trial. Am Heart J 2016;176:53-62.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Blumenthal JA, Smith PJ, Jiang W, Hinderliter A, Watkins LL, Hoffman BM, et al. Effect of exercise, escitalopram, or placebo on anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease: The understanding the benefits of exercise and escitalopram in anxious patients with coronary heart disease (UNWIND) randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 2021;78:1270-8.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Knapp P, Burton AC, Holmes J, Murray J, Gillespie D, Lightbody E, et al. Interventions for treating anxiety after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; Issue:5. Available from: https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008860. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 24].  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Jiang W, Velazquez EJ, Kuchibhatla M, Samad Z, Boyle S, Kuhn C, et al. Responses of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia to escitalopram treatment: Results from the REMIT trial. JAMA 2013;309:2139-49.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Elzib H, Pawloski J, Ding Y, Asmaro K. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy and poststroke motor rehabilitation: A review of neurophysiologic mechanisms and clinical relevance. Brain Circ 2019;5:62-7.  Back to cited text no. 45
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
46.
Kamarck TW, Muldoon MF, Manuck SB, Haskett RF, Cheong J, Flory JD, et al. Citalopram improves metabolic risk factors among high hostile adults: Results of a placebo-controlled intervention. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2011;36:1070-9.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Chávez-Castillo M, Ortega A, Nava M, Fuenmayor J, Lameda V, Velasco M, et al. Metabolic risk in depression and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Are the metabolic syndrome and an increase in cardiovascular risk unavoidable? Vessel Plus 2018;2:6.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Funk KA, Bostwick JR. A comparison of the risk of QT prolongation among SSRIs. Ann Pharmacother 2013;47:1330-41.  Back to cited text no. 48
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Prevalence of An...
Clinical Signifi...
Clinical Managem...
Anxiety Interven...
Summary
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1234    
    Printed30    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded149    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]