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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 65-72

Possible mechanisms of cardiovascular complications and troponin elevation in coronavirus disease: A narrative review


1 Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of CTVS, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
3 Department of Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, AMITY University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Saloni Malik
M. Sc. Student, Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/hm.hm_16_21

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More than 20 million human beings got infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and suffered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease in the current global pandemic. This disease flow showed a heterogeneous spectrum due to various personalized underlying causes and immunogenetics makeup of an individual. Substantial evidence suggests that the severity of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failures, and deaths in COVID-19 is attributable to cytokine storm. Thus, in a cytokine storm, the dysregulated immune system is triggered by superantigen of SARS-CoV-2 to release various cytokines with high speed and increased blood circulation concentrations, leading to diverse clinical manifestations of massive multi-organ destruction and death due to exuberant hyperinflammation at a local and systemic level. SARS-CoV-2 can also significantly affect the cardiovascular system of the infected persons through a systemic outburst of the cytokine storm. SARS-CoV-2 infection accompanies many cardiovascular complications that include myocardial infarction, myocarditis, microangiopathy, venous thromboembolism, and a cytokine storm burden resulting in heart failure. This narrative review attempts to gather all recent evidence by Internet-based literature search with relevant keywords related to coronavirus disease with main objective and focus on possible mechanisms of pathophysiology of troponin elevation and cardiovascular complications, with its diagnosis and recent guidelines for its management.


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