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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 35-46

The depressed heart


1 Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience & Physiology, College of Medicine, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA
2 Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience & Physiology, College of Medicine, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Flinders University, Australia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Seth W Perry
College of Medicine, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/hm.hm_13_19

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Our appreciation and understanding of the interrelationships between disrupted metabolic function and depression have increased significantly over the last few decades. This review focuses still more specifically on the intersections between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). General pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in both diseases include inflammation, cytokine and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation, oxidative stress, neurotransmitter disruptions, neuroplasticity, and the microbiome. Here, we explore these mechanistic overlaps of depression and CVD, including some discussion of related and frequently comorbid disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, and the closely related “metabolic syndrome.” Finally, we discuss integrated therapeutic strategies for treating MDD comorbid with CVD.


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